Problem tree analysis
Problem Tree Analysis is a popular tool that is used to analyse complex problems and break them down into smaller and more manageable parts. This tool is particularly useful when trying to identify the root causes of a problem and develop effective solutions. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the Problem Tree Analysis tool, discuss its benefits, and explore the various steps involved in conducting a Problem Tree Analysis. We will also provide examples of how this tool has been used successfully in different contexts.
Chapter 1: What is Problem Tree Analysis?
Problem Tree Analysis, also known as Fault Tree Analysis or Root Cause Analysis, is a systematic and visual approach to analysing complex problems. This tool involves breaking down a problem into its component parts, identifying the causes and effects of each component, and then analysing the relationships between these causes and effects. The end result is a visual representation of the problem that can be used to develop effective solutions.
Chapter 2: Benefits of Problem Tree Analysis
There are several benefits to using Problem Tree Analysis as a tool for problem-solving. Firstly, it helps to identify the root causes of a problem, rather than just the symptoms. This means that the solutions developed through Problem Tree Analysis are more likely to be effective and sustainable. Secondly, this tool encourages collaboration and discussion between team members, which can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the problem. Thirdly, Problem Tree Analysis is a structured and visual approach to problem-solving, which makes it easier to communicate complex issues to stakeholders.
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Chapter 3: Steps Involved in Conducting a Problem
Tree Analysis The Problem Tree Analysis process involves several key steps, which are outlined below.
Step 1: Identify the Problem The first step in conducting a Problem Tree Analysis is to clearly define the problem. This involves identifying the issue or challenge that needs to be addressed, as well as the context in which it is occurring.
Step 2: Develop the Problem Tree Once the problem has been clearly defined, the next step is to develop the Problem Tree. This involves breaking the problem down into its component parts and identifying the causes and effects of each component. The Problem Tree should be developed in a visual format, with each component represented by a node or branch.
Step 3: Analyse the Relationships Between the Components Once the Problem Tree has been developed, the next step is to analyse the relationships between the different components. This involves identifying the cause-and-effect relationships between the different nodes and branches on the tree.
Step 4: Identify the Root Causes of the Problem Based on the analysis of the relationships between the different components of the Problem Tree, the next step is to identify the root causes of the problem. These are the underlying factors that are contributing to the problem, rather than just the symptoms.
Step 5: Develop Solutions to Address the Root Causes Once the root causes of the problem have been identified, the final step is to develop solutions that address these underlying factors. These solutions should be targeted and specific, addressing the root causes rather than just the symptoms of the problem.
Chapter 4: Examples of Problem Tree Analysis in Practice
Problem Tree Analysis has been used successfully in a wide range of contexts, from community development to business management. Here are some examples of how this tool has been used in practice.
Example 1: Community Development In a community development context, Problem Tree Analysis was used to address the issue of unemployment. The Problem Tree identified several key factors contributing to high levels of unemployment in the community, including a lack of job opportunities, a lack of education and training opportunities, and a lack of access to resources and support. Based on this analysis, the community was able to develop targeted solutions that addressed these underlying factors and helped to reduce unemployment in the area.
Example 2: Business Management In a business management context, Problem
- The Problem Tree Analysis (PTA) is a popular tool used by development practitioners to identify and analyse complex problems in various fields. It provides a systematic and visual way to map out the root causes of a problem and their interconnections, making it easier to understand the complexity of the problem and develop effective solutions. In this paper, we will explore the concept of PTA, its key components, and how it can be used to solve real-world problems. We will also provide examples and case studies to illustrate its practical applications.
- Overview of Problem Tree AnalysisThe Problem Tree Analysis is a tool that is widely used in the field of development to identify and analyse complex problems. It is also known as the “objectives tree” or “causal tree” analysis. PTA involves creating a visual representation of the problem, its causes, and the underlying factors that contribute to it. The problem is represented as the trunk of the tree, while the causes and underlying factors are represented as the branches and roots.
2.1. Components of Problem Tree Analysis There are several key components of the PTA process, including:
2.1.1. Problem Identification: This involves identifying the problem that needs to be addressed. The problem should be clearly defined and its boundaries should be well-defined.
2.1.2. Stakeholder Analysis: This involves identifying the stakeholders who are affected by the problem and who have an interest in its resolution. Stakeholders can include individuals, groups, or organizations.
2.1.3. Objectives Analysis: This involves identifying the desired outcomes or objectives that need to be achieved. Objectives should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound).
2.1.4. Causal Analysis: This involves identifying the underlying causes and factors that contribute to the problem. This can be done through brainstorming, research, or other methods.
2.1.5. Effect Analysis: This involves identifying the effects or consequences of the problem on the stakeholders and the broader community.
2.1.6. Impact Analysis: This involves identifying the potential impact of the proposed solutions on the problem and the stakeholders.
How to Conduct a Problem Tree Analysis The Problem Tree Analysis process typically involves the following steps:
3.1. Define the Problem: Start by defining the problem that needs to be addressed. This should be done in a clear and concise manner.
3.2. Create the Tree Diagram: Draw a tree diagram that represents the problem, its causes, and the underlying factors. The problem is represented as the trunk of the tree, while the causes and factors are represented as the branches and roots.
3.3. Identify the Causes: Identify the causes and underlying factors that contribute to the problem. This can be done through brainstorming, research, or other methods.
3.4. Analyse the Causes: Analyse the causes and factors to determine their interrelationships and their relative importance.
3.5. Identify the Effects: Identify the effects or consequences of the problem on the stakeholders and the broader community.
3.6. Analyse the Effects: Analyse the effects to determine their interrelationships and their relative importance.
3.7. Identify the Objectives: Identify the desired outcomes or objectives that need to be achieved. Objectives should be SMART.
3.8. Analyse the Objectives: Analyse the objectives to determine their interrelationships and their relative importance.
3.9. Identify the Solutions: Identify potential solutions to the problem.
3.10. Analyse the Solutions: Analyse the potential solutions to determine their potential impact on the problem and the stakeholders.
Developing solutions and strategies
After identifying the core problems, the next step is to develop solutions and strategies that can address them. This involves identifying possible interventions that can help to tackle the underlying causes of the problems. The solutions identified must be actionable, measurable, and realistic. The objective of this stage is to develop a set of recommendations that can guide decision-making and the allocation of resources.
At this stage, it is important to involve stakeholders in the process of developing solutions and strategies. This can be done through consultations, workshops, or other participatory approaches. Stakeholders can provide valuable insights into the root causes of the problems and help to identify possible solutions. Additionally, involving stakeholders can help to ensure that the solutions developed are feasible and sustainable.
With a range of possible solutions and strategies identified, the next step is to prioritize them based on their potential impact and feasibility. This involves assessing the likely effectiveness of each intervention and its cost. Interventions that are likely to have the greatest impact and are the most feasible should be prioritized.
It is important to note that interventions that are prioritized should be complementary and not contradictory. This means that interventions that address different aspects of the problem should be integrated and coordinated. This can help to ensure that the interventions are more effective and efficient.
Developing an action plan
The final step in the problem tree analysis is to develop an action plan that outlines the steps that need to be taken to implement the prioritized interventions. This involves identifying the resources that are required, the timeline for implementation, and the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders.
The action plan should be specific, measurable, and time-bound. It should also include a monitoring and evaluation framework to track progress and make adjustments as needed. The objective of the action plan is to provide a clear roadmap for implementing the interventions and achieving the desired outcomes.
Table 1: Example of a problem tree analysis for a community health program
|Core problem||Contributing factors|
|Poor maternal health outcomes||Lack of access to health care services, Lack of awareness about maternal health, Poor quality of care, Socioeconomic factors|
|Lack of access to health care services||Limited availability of health facilities, Lack of transportation, Lack of trained health personnel|
|Lack of awareness about maternal health||Limited community education programs, Cultural beliefs and practices, Limited access to information|
|Poor quality of care||Lack of trained health personnel, Inadequate medical equipment and supplies, Inadequate referral systems|
|Socioeconomic factors||Poverty, Gender inequality, Lack of education, Limited employment opportunities|
Table 2: Example of prioritized interventions for the community health program
|Increase availability of health facilities||High||High||High|
|Improve transportation services to health facilities||High||High||Medium|
|Increase community education programs on maternal health||Medium||High||Low|
|Train health personnel on maternal health care||High||Medium||High|
|Improve referral systems||Medium||Low||Medium|
|Increase access to medical equipment and supplies||Medium||Low||High|
Table 3: Example of an action plan for the community health program
|Intervention||Timeline||Resources||Roles and Responsibilities|
|Increase availability of health facilities||6 months||Funding, Construction materials, Health personnel||Local government, Health ministry, Construction companies|
|Improve transportation services to health facilities||12 months||Funding, Vehicles||Local government, Transportation companies|
|Increase community education programs on maternal health||Ongoing||Funding, Education materials||Community-based organizations, Health ministry|
|Train health personnel on maternal health|
- Identifying the Underlying Causes Now that we have identified the immediate causes of the problem, we need to dig deeper and identify the underlying causes that are contributing to the problem. The underlying causes are the root causes of the problem and need to be addressed to solve the problem in the long term.
To identify the underlying causes, we need to ask ourselves why the immediate causes exist. This can be done by creating a new set of branches from the immediate causes and asking the question “why” for each of them. We can continue doing this until we get to the root causes of the problem.
- Analyzing the Causes Once we have identified the underlying causes of the problem, we need to analyze them to gain a better understanding of why they are contributing to the problem. This can be done by using tools such as a fishbone diagram or a five whys analysis.
Analyzing the causes will help us to understand the relationships between the different causes and how they are contributing to the problem. This will also help us to identify which causes are the most important and which ones we need to address first.
- Identifying Possible Solutions Now that we have a better understanding of the problem and its underlying causes, we can start to identify possible solutions. We need to brainstorm all possible solutions and evaluate them based on their feasibility, effectiveness, and cost.
We can use tools such as a decision matrix or a SWOT analysis to evaluate the solutions and choose the best one. It is important to involve all stakeholders in this process to ensure that we have a comprehensive list of solutions and that the chosen solution is acceptable to everyone involved.
- Developing an Action Plan Once we have identified the best solution, we need to develop an action plan to implement it. The action plan should include a timeline, a list of tasks, responsible parties, and resources required.
The action plan should also include a way to measure progress and evaluate the success of the solution. It is important to communicate the action plan to all stakeholders and ensure that everyone understands their roles and responsibilities.
- Implementing the Solution Now it’s time to put the plan into action. This involves carrying out the tasks outlined in the action plan and monitoring progress. It is important to address any issues that arise and make adjustments to the plan as necessary.
It is also important to communicate the progress of the implementation to all stakeholders and celebrate successes along the way.
- Evaluating the Solution After the solution has been implemented, it is important to evaluate its effectiveness. This involves measuring progress against the goals and objectives outlined in the action plan and determining whether the solution has solved the problem.
If the solution has been successful, it can be scaled up or replicated in other areas. If the solution has not been successful, we need to go back to the problem tree and identify why the solution did not work and what changes need to be made to the plan.
Advantages and Limitations of Problem Tree Analysis
Chapter 1: Introduction
Problem Tree Analysis (PTA) is a widely used tool in the field of development planning and management. It is a visual representation of a problem and its underlying causes and effects, and helps to identify the most effective solutions to address the problem. This paper aims to explore the advantages and limitations of using PTA in development planning and management.
Chapter 2: Advantages of Problem Tree Analysis
2.1 Clarity of the Problem The first advantage of using PTA is that it provides a clear understanding of the problem at hand. By breaking down the problem into its various components and identifying the underlying causes and effects, it becomes easier to understand the issue in its entirety. This can be particularly useful when dealing with complex problems that have multiple causes and effects.
2.2 Participation and Ownership PTA is a participatory tool that encourages active involvement of stakeholders in the analysis process. This promotes ownership and buy-in of the proposed solutions. The stakeholders are able to contribute their knowledge and experience to the analysis, making it more accurate and relevant. This also helps in building trust and strengthening relationships between stakeholders.
2.3 Focus on Root Causes One of the most significant advantages of PTA is its ability to identify the root causes of a problem. This is important because addressing the root causes is more effective than addressing the symptoms of the problem. By focusing on the root causes, it is possible to develop solutions that are more sustainable and long-lasting.
2.4 Structured Analysis PTA provides a structured approach to problem-solving. It helps to ensure that all relevant factors are taken into consideration and that the analysis is conducted in a logical and systematic manner. This can be particularly useful when dealing with complex problems that require a comprehensive analysis.
Chapter 3: Limitations of Problem Tree Analysis
3.1 Time-consuming PTA can be a time-consuming process, particularly when involving a large number of stakeholders. The process involves several steps, including problem identification, cause and effect analysis, and the development of a logic model. This can be a time-consuming process and may require significant resources.
3.2 Subjectivity PTA relies on the input of stakeholders, which can lead to subjectivity in the analysis. The analysis may be influenced by the biases and opinions of the stakeholders, which can affect the accuracy of the results. This can be particularly problematic if the stakeholders have conflicting interests or if some stakeholders are more dominant than others.
3.3 Lack of Quantitative Data PTA relies on qualitative data, which can limit its usefulness in certain situations. In particular, PTA may not be effective when dealing with problems that require quantitative analysis or when quantitative data is not available. This can limit the usefulness of PTA in certain contexts.
3.4 Limited Scope PTA focuses on a specific problem and its underlying causes and effects. This can limit its usefulness in situations where there are multiple problems or where the problem is part of a larger system. In such cases, a more comprehensive analysis may be required.
Chapter 4: Conclusion
PTA is a useful tool for problem-solving in the field of development planning and management. It provides a structured approach to problem-solving and encourages active participation of stakeholders. However, it also has limitations, such as subjectivity and the lack of quantitative data. It is important to recognize these limitations and use PTA in conjunction with other tools to ensure a comprehensive analysis of the problem.
Problem tree analysis example
Chapter 1: Problem Identification
The first step in conducting a Problem Tree Analysis is to identify the problem. In this example, the problem is the high unemployment rates in a specific region. The unemployment rate has been consistently high for several years, and this has caused significant economic and social challenges for the region. To better understand the problem, it is important to gather data and information about the issue. This data can be collected through surveys, interviews, and other methods.
Chapter 2: Analyzing the Problem
Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to analyze the problem in more detail. In this step, the Problem Tree is created. The Problem Tree is a visual representation of the problem and its underlying causes. The trunk of the tree represents the problem, and the branches represent the causes. For the problem of high unemployment rates in the region, the Problem Tree may look like this:
The trunk of the tree represents the problem of high unemployment rates in the region. The branches represent the underlying causes of the problem. In this case, the underlying causes include a lack of job opportunities, a lack of skills among the workforce, and a lack of investment in the region.
Chapter 3: Identifying Solutions
Once the Problem Tree has been created, the next step is to identify potential solutions to the problem. This is done by creating a Solution Tree. The Solution Tree is a visual representation of the potential solutions to the problem and the actions that need to be taken to implement these solutions. The Solution Tree may look like this: The trunk of the tree represents the goal of reducing unemployment rates in the region. The branches represent the potential solutions to the problem, including creating new job opportunities, providing training and education for the workforce, and attracting investment to the region.
Chapter 4: Evaluating Solutions
After identifying potential solutions, the next step is to evaluate each solution to determine its feasibility, effectiveness, and potential impact. This can be done by using various criteria, such as cost, timeline, and stakeholder involvement. Once the solutions have been evaluated, the most feasible and effective solution can be selected and implemented.
Chapter 5: Monitoring and Evaluation
After implementing a solution, it is important to monitor its progress and evaluate its impact. This can be done by collecting data and information about the solution and its outcomes. Monitoring and evaluation can help to identify any issues or challenges with the solution and make necessary adjustments.
Problem Tree Analysis is a valuable tool for identifying complex problems and developing effective solutions. In this example, we have seen how Problem Tree Analysis can be applied to the problem of high unemployment rates in a specific region. By analysing the problem and identifying potential solutions, we can develop a plan of action that can help to reduce unemployment rates and improve the economic and social well-being of the region.
How to do problem tree analysis
Problem Tree Analysis (PTA) is a widely used tool in project management, strategic planning, and policy-making. It helps to identify the underlying causes of a particular problem by creating a visual representation of the problem and its causes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a step-by-step guide on how to do problem tree analysis. This guide will cover the key steps involved in conducting PTA and will also highlight some of the benefits of using this tool.
Chapter 1: Understanding Problem Tree Analysis
Before diving into the step-by-step process of conducting PTA, it is important to understand what it is and what it entails. PTA is a participatory tool that involves bringing together stakeholders and experts to identify the underlying causes of a particular problem. The process of PTA involves creating a visual representation of the problem and its causes, which is often in the form of a tree. The tree helps to show the relationship between the problem and its causes, as well as the interconnections between the various causes.
Chapter 2: Identifying the Problem
first step in conducting PTA is to identify the problem. This can be done by gathering information through research or by conducting a survey. The problem should be clearly defined and stated in a way that is easy to understand. It is important to involve stakeholders in this process to ensure that the problem is accurately defined and reflects the perspectives of all parties involved.
Chapter 3: Mapping the Problem Tree
Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to map out the problem tree. This involves creating a visual representation of the problem and its causes. The problem is usually represented at the top of the tree, with the causes branching out below it. The causes should be organized into categories, which can be represented by different branches on the tree.
Chapter 4: Identifying the Causes
The next step is to identify the causes of the problem. This involves brainstorming with stakeholders to identify all the possible causes of the problem. The causes should be organized into categories based on their relationship to the problem. For example, causes that are directly related to the problem should be placed closer to the problem on the tree, while causes that are indirectly related should be placed further away.
Chapter 5: Analysing the Causes
Once the causes have been identified and organized into categories, the next step is to analyse them. This involves identifying the relationships between the various causes and the problem. It is important to look for patterns and interconnections between the causes, as this can help to identify the root cause of the problem.
Chapter 6: Identifying Solutions The final step in conducting PTA is to identify potential solutions to the problem. This involves brainstorming with stakeholders to identify all the possible solutions. The solutions should be organized into categories based on their effectiveness and feasibility. It is important to involve stakeholders in this process to ensure that the solutions are realistic and reflect the perspectives of all parties involved.
Chapter 7: Advantages of Problem Tree Analysis There are several advantages to using PTA. First, it provides a structured and systematic approach to problem-solving. Second, it encourages participation and collaboration among stakeholders, which can lead to more effective and sustainable solutions. Third, it helps to identify the root cause of a problem, rather than just treating the symptoms.
Chapter 8: Limitations of Problem Tree Analysis While there are many benefits to using PTA, there are also some limitations. One limitation is that it can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. Another limitation is that it requires a high level of expertise to facilitate the process effectively. Finally, it can be difficult to measure the effectiveness of the solutions identified through PTA.
- Developing an Intervention Logic
Once the problem tree has been constructed, the next step is to develop an intervention logic. This involves identifying the possible solutions to the problem and deciding which ones are most appropriate. The intervention logic involves developing a hierarchy of objectives, outcomes, and outputs.
Objectives are the overall goals of the intervention and should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound). Outcomes are the changes that the intervention is expected to bring about, while outputs are the activities that will be carried out to achieve the outcomes.
The intervention logic helps to ensure that the solution identified addresses the root cause of the problem. It also helps to identify the resources that will be required to implement the solution and the indicators that will be used to measure progress.
Problem tree analysis case study
Chapter 1: Problem Identification
The case study involves a small community struggling with unemployment and poverty. The community has limited access to basic resources, including healthcare and education. The community members are primarily engaged in subsistence farming, but due to the changing climatic conditions, the yields have reduced significantly, leading to increased poverty levels. The community has limited job opportunities, and the few available ones are mostly low-paying and seasonal. The community also lacks essential infrastructure, including roads and electricity, which makes it difficult for businesses to thrive.
Chapter 2: Problem Analysis
The Problem Tree Analysis (PTA) process was applied to the community issue. The first step involved brainstorming and identifying the various problems facing the community. The problems identified included unemployment, low crop yields, lack of access to education and healthcare, inadequate infrastructure, and limited job opportunities.
The next step involved identifying the underlying causes of the problems. It was found that the low crop yields were due to the changing climatic conditions and the lack of access to modern farming techniques. The lack of access to education and healthcare was due to the community’s remote location and limited resources. The inadequate infrastructure was due to the lack of government investment in the area, and the limited job opportunities were due to the lack of industries in the region.
Chapter 3: Identification of Solutions
After identifying the underlying causes of the community issues, the next step involved developing solutions that could address the problems. The solutions were developed by looking at the underlying causes of the issues identified in the problem analysis. The solutions identified included:
- Introducing modern farming techniques and providing the farmers with necessary resources like fertilizers, and pesticides, and other inputs to boost crop yields.
- Building schools and health centres in the community and providing the necessary resources to make them operational.
- Advocating for government investment in the area to provide essential infrastructure like roads and electricity.
- Encouraging the establishment of industries in the region and providing the necessary support to enable their growth.
Chapter 4: Implementation of Solutions
The solutions identified in chapter 3 were then implemented. The community members were trained on modern farming techniques, and the necessary inputs were provided to boost crop yields. The government was also lobbied to invest in the region, and as a result, a road was constructed, and plans were underway to provide electricity to the area.
Two schools and a health center were also built in the community, and the necessary resources were provided to make them operational. The community was also encouraged to establish small-scale industries, and the necessary support was provided to enable their growth.
Chapter 5: Outcomes
The implementation of the solutions had a significant impact on the community. The crop yields increased, and the community was able to produce enough food to feed its members and sell the surplus to the neighbouring communities. The schools and health centres also improved the community’s access to education and healthcare, leading to improved living standards.
The road construction and plans to provide electricity also improved the community’s access to essential services and opened up the region to more significant economic activities. The establishment of small-scale industries also created employment opportunities, reducing the levels of unemployment and poverty in the community.
Problem Tree Analysis is a powerful tool that can be used to analyse complex problems and develop targeted solutions. The case study illustrates how PTA was used to identify the problems facing a community and develop solutions to address them. The implementation of the solutions had a significant impact.
FAQ Problem Tree Analysis
Q: What is Problem Tree Analysis? A: Problem Tree Analysis (also known as Situational Analysis or Root Cause Analysis) is a visual tool used to identify and analyse the causes and effects of a problem or issue. It helps to identify the root causes of a problem and to understand the relationships between different factors that contribute to the problem.
Q: How is Problem Tree Analysis conducted? A: Problem Tree Analysis is conducted by identifying the problem or issue at the centre of the analysis and then brainstorming and mapping out the underlying causes and effects using a tree diagram. The tree diagram has a root representing the problem and branches representing the causes and effects. The branches are further divided into sub-branches to identify the underlying factors contributing to the problem.
Q: What are the benefits of using Problem Tree Analysis? A: Problem Tree Analysis is a useful tool for identifying the root causes of a problem and understanding the complex relationships between different factors. It helps to prioritize the key issues that need to be addressed and to develop targeted solutions. It also helps to engage stakeholders and build consensus on the best way forward.
Q: When is Problem Tree Analysis used? A: Problem Tree Analysis is used in a variety of contexts, including community development, environmental management, public health, and business strategy. It can be used to identify and address a range of issues, such as poverty, deforestation, water scarcity, and disease outbreaks.
Q: Who can conduct Problem Tree Analysis? A: Problem Tree Analysis can be conducted by anyone, from community members to policymakers, depending on the context and purpose of the analysis. It is important to involve stakeholders with different perspectives and expertise to ensure a comprehensive and accurate analysis.
Q: What are the limitations of Problem Tree Analysis? A: Problem Tree Analysis is a tool that requires time, resources, and expertise to conduct effectively. It can also be subjective and influenced by biases or assumptions. Additionally, it may not capture all the complexities of a problem and may need to be supplemented with other analytical tools.
- “Problem Tree Analysis in Practice: A Case Study from Rwanda” by USAID: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Problem%20Tree%20Analysis%20in%20Practice%20-%20A%20Case%20Study%20from%20Rwanda.pdf
- “Using Problem Tree Analysis to Tackle Social Problems” by The Asia Foundation: https://asiafoundation.org/2017/08/16/using-problem-tree-analysis-tackle-social-problems/
- “Problem Tree Analysis: A Tool for Effective Stakeholder Engagement” by The World Bank: https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/participation-for-transformational-change/brief/problem-tree-analysis-a-tool-for-effective-stakeholder-engagement
- “Problem Tree Analysis: A Tool for Root Cause Analysis” by The International Institute for Sustainable Development: https://www.iisd.org/system/files/2019-02/problem-tree-analysis-guide_0.pdf
- “A Guide to Problem Tree Analysis” by BetterEvaluation: https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/evaluation-options/problem_tree_analysis
- “Problem Tree Analysis for Community-Based Environmental Management” by The International Institute for Environment and Development: https://www.iied.org/problem-tree-analysis-community-based-environmental-management
- “Agricultural Water Management: Problem Tree Analysis” by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: http://www.fao.org/3/y5484e/y5484e07.htm
- “Problem Tree Analysis: A Tool for Project Planning and Management” by The International Labour Organization: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_123235.pdf